Temperature of horticulture crops


Temperature of horticulture crops and field

Environmental sensitivity of horticulture crops and field

1.1 The Council’s Reference Document on the long-term strategy for soil and water (2011/280/EU) recognises the importance of temperature for the viability of horticulture crops and the related products, the relevant items of which are described here. This includes crops and their related products and live plants in the nursery stage, the primary growing area, the dormant period and the outdoors during the growth season. Plants at a given stage of development are usually exposed to similar environmental conditions over a period of time. The effects of climate change and expected changes in the environment and in crop and vegetable growing conditions can be presented by climate profiles. In contrast to other weather factors, which generally result in a characteristic weekly pattern of change, climate change will cause unpredictable changes to the conditions that plants experience.1.2 This Reference Document is presented in the format of a fact sheet on the long-term strategy for soil and water. Its intent is to provide information on the current and future circumstances in which different types of horticulture crops and field-related products will be produced, as well as the impact of climate change on such production systems. In this respect, it is recognised that the variation of the effects of climate change is very diverse, and many factors must be taken into account when planning the production of any plant and its related products.

1.3 The model presented here assumes an average annual temperature of 16.8°C (12.8°C in winter and 21.8°C in summer). It does not account for extreme temperatures (Fig. 1). For temperatures below -20°C (Fig. 2) and above 30°C (Fig. 3), various adaptations have been provided. For temperatures between -10°C and 10°C (Fig. 4), climate-induced effects on production are investigated. This temperature range is relevant for field-related products, which have to withstand the variety of temperatures experienced in winter and summer. The same temperature profile is assumed for horticulture crops, but the figure varies (Fig. 5). Crops and plants of the same species can vary in response to temperature, depending on plant age and genotype. The model therefore only includes temperature effects in relation to the crop in question, and not those of other species, or individual plants within the same species. A review of the effects of temperature on plants can be found in Macquarrie (2001). The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report does not take the thermal sensitivity of plants into account.1.4 The key factors affecting the production of horticulture crops and their related products are: 1.6 TminTmax: The lowest and highest daily mean temperature occurring in the crop’s growing period (defined as the time period between sowing and harvesting) (Fig. 6). In the main growing season, this is the period for vegetative growth of the crop.2.2 Tday: The average of the highest and lowest daily temperatures occurring in the crop’s growing season (Fig. 7). This is the most relevant factor for the production of vegetative crops (such as fruits, vegetables, and potatoes).3.4 TMAX: The highest temperature reached by the crop’s growing area during the growing season.3.3 TDIFF: The difference between the hottest and coolest daily mean temperature in the crop’s growing season.4.4 TMAX-Tmin: The difference between the maximum and minimum daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.5.3 TMEAN: The average of the daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.5.1.3 TMEAN-Tmin: The difference between the average and minimum daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.6.5 TmaxTmin: The difference between the maximum and minimum daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.7.4 TDIFF: The difference between the highest and lowest daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season. This figure may be higher than 3.3 or 6.5. The higher the temperature difference, the greater the impact on crop performance.8.2 TMEAN: The average of the daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.8.1.3 TMEAN-Tmin: The difference between the average and minimum daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.9.3 TMAX: The highest temperature reached by the crop’s growing area during the growing season.9.2 TDIFF: The difference between the highest and lowest daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.10.3 TDIFF-Tmin: The difference between the highest and lowest daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season, minus the minimum temperature in that period.10.2 TMEAN: The average of the daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.10.1.3 TMEAN-Tmin: The difference between the average and minimum daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.11.2 TmaxTmin: The difference between the maximum and minimum daily mean temperatures in the crop’s growing season.

Figure 1: Time-based temperature profile from sowing to harvest for the period from May 1st to September 31st of 2016. All figures are Celsius.

Figure 2: Time-based temperature profile from sowing to harvest for the period from October 1st to March 31


Watch the video: Cultivation of Cruciferous Vegetable Crops. Part 1. Horticulture crops. BHU. ICAR-JRF. AFO


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