Increase the yield of industrial tomatoes: here's how


Have you ever thought you wanted to increase the yield of industrial tomatoes grown in your fields? In this way you can certainly also increase your income thanks to higher production. Today we offer you one effective solution that you can immediately put to the test. Let's see which one together.

Industrial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

This plant, as we have already seen in the article dedicated to how to grow tomatoes, is originally from Central and South America, probably from Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant, although with a perennial tendency in the conditions of origin. It was introduced in Europe in 1500, but was used as a vegetable (and subjected to genetic improvement) only from the 1800s. At the end of this century, the best known tomato processing industries began to emerge.

Some data

Before we see how to increase the yield of tomatoes, let's see some data on the distribution of this horticultural plant. After the potato and the sweet potato, the tomato is the most cultivated vegetable in the world; in 2017 (FAO data):

  • tomato cultivation covered about 4.8 million hectares of surface;
  • about 159 million tons are produced every year.
  • in Italy it is the most important horticultural species;

in 2012 (Italian Agriculture Yearbook, INEA):

  • surface about 98,000 ha (of which about 6300 in greenhouses);
  • production about 5.6 million tons;
  • average yield (open field) 560 q / ha (normal 600-800 q / ha);
  • average yield (greenhouse) 720 q / ha (normal 1000-1500 q / ha, but even more, especially in the case of soilless).

The regions that produce the most industrial tomatoes are: Emilia Romagna (25,392 ha), Puglia (24,638 ha) and Sicily (12,706 ha).

Variety of tomato

The main criterion for the classification of tomato varieties is the type of use. Tomatoes, on a commercial level, in fact, they are classified more for their use than for the species:

  1. table tomatoes
  2. industrial tomatoes
  3. Serbian tomatoes (uncommon)

Today we want to focus on industrial tomatoes and on how to increase their production.

These tomatoes must have particular characteristics: the formation of a large number of seeds, for example, is important because stimulates fruit enlargement. Those required in particular for industrial tomatoes are:

  • high productivity
  • disease resistance
  • good organoleptic characteristics
  • earliness (to expand the harvesting campaign)
  • ripening as contemporary as possible (to facilitate mechanical harvesting)
  • resistance to over-ripening (to facilitate mechanical harvesting)
  • determined growth
  • bearing of the plant as erect as possible even in the advanced stages of development (avoid contact of the fruits with the ground)
  • consistent fruit and "jointless" peduncle (suitable for mechanical harvesting)
  • leafiness such as to protect the fruit from burns but not excessive to facilitate mechanical harvesting
  • suitability for processing (depends on: dry matter, color, acidity, sugar content, peelability, etc., with different needs depending on the destination)

Main products that can be obtained from industrial tomatoes

Usually, when you want to increase the yield of tomatoes, you only think of canteen or industrial tomatoes in general. But industrial tomatoes are actually commercially divided into other sub-categories, depending on the product obtained from the transformation. These are:

  • Peeled tomatoes: Fruits of elongated shape deprived of the peel and canned whole together with tomato juice not exceeding 30-40%.
  • Tomato concentrates: the fruits deprived of the skins and seeds are subjected to concentration. They are differentiated on the basis of dry residue, net of added salt.
  • Tomato juice: tomato pulp without skins and seeds, homogenized and flavored.
  • Dehydrated tomato: the pulp of the tomato deprived of skins and seeds is dehydrated and then reduced to powder (flour) or fractionated (flakes).
  • Diced tomatoes: fruits deprived of the peel and seeds, chopped into small cubes and canned together with tomato juice. Similar processing occurs for the "past".
  • Seasoning sauces: they are obtained using tomato juice or concentrates diluted with the addition of flavorings, vinegar and various spices.
  • Natural tomatoes: whole fruits canned with the peel (not very common in Italy).

Increase the yield of tomatoes

One of the main problems for industrial tomato growers is precisely that of respond to the pedo-climatic and nutritional needs of plants. Among the nutritional needs we find precisely that of fertilization, necessary on the one hand to fill the deficiencies due to the type of soil and on the other to increase the yield of tomatoes. Among the various types of fertilization we find the fertigation technique, one of the best methods to meet the needs of the plant. This technique allows you to:

  1. Save time and manpower: as the irrigation and fertilization practices are carried out at the same time.
  2. Increase efficiency: as the nutrients are transported by the same water absorbed by the roots of the plant.
  3. Decrease the losses of used products: as the nutrients are absorbed in a very short period of time.

In the context of fertigation, today we want to mention two products of the manufacturer COMPO EXPERT: Novatec® Solub and Hakaphos® (which they have already talked about on their Facebook page, on which you can follow them by leaving a like).

  • Novatec® Solub: it is a water-soluble fertilizer, therefore it dissolves easily in water and is suitable for all effects for fertigation. The nitrogen inside the products of this line is stabilized, therefore the plant's accessibility to nitrogen is controlled. The tomato plant, therefore, will receive nitrogen only when it needs it, thus increasing the efficiency of this element. This further translates into a symbiosis with the other elements, such as the control of active Calcium, the reduction of the occurrence of Chlorosis and increasing the mobility of Phosphorus and other elements.
  • Hakaphos®: it is a water-soluble fertilizer, also suitable for fertigation. Unlike others, it does not contain Chlorine, Sodium and Urea. The latter, in fact, is one of the main causes of the appearance of nitric toxicity at the soil level and, often, also of the appearance of weeds. Hakaphos® is a range of fertilizers rich and balanced in the elements necessary to increase the yield of industrial tomatoes. Their effect is practically immediate and they are also suitable for use in soilless solutions.

For more information about COMPO EXPERT products, you can refer to the following contact details:

COMPO EXPERT Italia S.r.l.
Via Marconato, 8 20811 Cesano Maderno MB
Website: http://www.compo-expert.com/it
Email: [email protected]
Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/compoexpertitalia/
Instagram profile: https://www.instagram.com/compoexpertitalia/
Product catalog: https://goo.gl/LMui6L


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Tomato: Call these 14 varieties by name if you say you know them

How many types of Italian tomatoes do you really know? Here are the 14 essential varieties for us, including the well-known cherry tomatoes and oxheart and names that you may not recognize, even if consuming them often.

Tomato is the most used fruit in Italian cuisine, yet some of you, reading this statement, got dumbfounded. Widespread, the protagonist of an entire bible of Italian recipes (one above all, spaghetti with tomato sauce) is technically a berry, which is declined in many of those preparations and cultivars, with a particular vocation in Campania, that talk about types of tomato it's impossible.

Several regions can claim products of excellence: there are the San Marzano DOP bells from Agro Sarnese-Nocerino and Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio, the imposing ribs and ox hearts from Tuscany and Piedmont plus a slew of Slow Food Presidia from Puglia, Sicily. and Calabria.

Classifying tomatoes is not exactly easy. Despite the existence of yellow, green and even black fruits, grouping them by color under a generic "red" would be too simplistic. Let's take advantage here to remind you that the lycopene, the carotenoid which plays an important role in cancer prevention and which gives the plant its scientific name (Solanum lycopersicum), is present in higher concentration in the classic "red-tomato".

There form is another possible criterion: round, elongated, pear, cherry, ribbed, pizzutello, datterino. Well, but not very well, because sometimes the name of the cultivar, while actually designating a provenance, indicates an "implied" form. This is the case of San Marzano, which is a separate category with numerous subspecies, but this does not mean that we feel like classifying it as an “elongated tomato”. Finally, there is the final destination, namely tomatoes for salads, gravies, juice or drying: here, honestly, we pass the ball to you and your tastes.

In the end, we opted for an all-Italian list, consisting of the main local forms and varieties that can only be found here or in their best version. here are the 14 types of Italian tomatoes to know.


Ash fertilizer for your vegetable garden or garden but how is it used?

Ash as a fertilizer can be used in various ways depending on the type of plants to be cultivated. You can decide to distribute the ash in the garden before it is dug or after the planting of the young plants.

For trees, it is possible to distribute the ash evenly over the entire area of ​​the ground that is covered by the tree canopy.


Increase the yield of industrial tomatoes: here's how - garden

In the garden centers, but even more in the catalogs of seed companies available on the web, you can find hundreds of tomato varieties many of these houses practice mail order, so you can choose from home, calmly, from a very wide range of varieties. . the ones we want to try in our garden.

It is never convenient to grow a single variety: even if we prefer only one type (for example the Cuor di Bue), we can buy two sachets of seeds from two different suppliers, to be grown in two rows. This definitely improves overall production and positively affects plant health.

As for the cultivars, we can make a first rough division between round table tomatoes (like Cuor di Bue), long canned tomatoes (like San Marzano) and Ciliegini or cluster tomatoes. This division can be useful in determining the cultivation method, which we have talked about in several other posts.

This division can be useful in determining the cultivation method, which we have talked about in several other posts. It should be remembered that, although there are "dwarf" tomato varieties, ALL varieties can be grown in pots without problems, even on an airy and bright balcony: just keep the humidity constant, avoiding alternating periods of drought with periods of overabundant irrigation. In practice, potted tomatoes should be watered every day. The pots must have a diameter between 25 and 35 cm.

How to choose varieties

In the home garden, all varieties, both so-called table and industrial varieties, can be grown profitably. This division refers more to the convenience of processing than to the quality of the product. Even industrial tomatoes can be excellent eaten fresh, in salads. There are no better varieties of all: there are, instead, better varieties for your soil. Each garden is different, both in terms of exposure, both for the composition of the earth which can be clayey, sandy, etc., and for its chemistry, i.e. the presence of humus, pH, previous crops, and many other variables.

It is necessary to experiment with different varieties, until you discover those that give the best yield in our garden. Local varieties should not be neglected: you will not find the seeds in the catalogs, but you can ask for them from the local horticulturists.

You will be able to buy seeds marked with F1 (strength 1). More difficult to find the F2 on the hobby market. These are seeds obtained with particular procedures, which can give more abundant and more disease-resistant productions. From these seeds, however, plants unable to generate similar seeds are born: the fruits deriving from F1 seed usually give few seeds which, if re-sown, produce absolutely poor plants.

Determined plants and indeterminate plants

Determined plants are more shrub-like and develop less in height: after a certain number of internodes they stop growth in height and develop laterally. They usually do not need supports and, obviously, the side shoots are not pruned. These varieties are preferred in the industry for the less work required. In the vegetable gardens it is customary to cultivate indeterminate varieties, supporting them with special stakes and taking care of the elimination of the lateral shoots, according to the varieties. Sustained plants still produce more beautiful and healthier fruits.

Large round tomatoes

also called "salad" or "table"

They still collect green, barely hinting at changing color. They reach a good size especially if care is taken to eliminate all the lateral jets and top the fifth-sixth productive crown.

The most common varieties are: Cuor di Bue, Ace, Marmande, Roman Pantano, Costoluto Genoese or Florentine, Montecarlo, Carmelo, Pearson.
Among the F1 hybrids we can remember Phaedra, Ambra, Kastalia, Alex, etc.

There are also varieties called "al rosso", which are harvested when they have already reached a bright red color: usually the whole bunch is harvested. Among the varieties we can remember the Matador, and then Brio, Miro, Monika, etc.

They can be eaten fresh (they often exceed the round varieties in flavor) or they can be left to ripen on the plant for the production of peeled tomatoes, sauces and preserves.

The most common varieties, in addition to the classic San Marzano, are Chico III, Rome, Naples, Rio Grande, Rio Fuego, Cal J, U.C. 82, etc.

Among the hybrids we remember: Falcon, Royal Chico, Ribot, Ulisse, Erminia.

Varieties with small clustered fruits (cherry, datterini, etc.)

This type of tomato tends to spread more and more due to their taste and aesthetic appeal: they are very decorative. They are harvested in stages and used only when they are fully ripe.

Among the varieties we remember the Principe Borghese, the Tondino di Manduria, the Tondino da appendere, the Corbarino and the Datterino, the latter two in the shape of an olive or date.

Other varieties are Naomi, Pepe, Cherry Wonder, Piccadilly, etc.

By consulting the catalogs you will find many varieties of yellow tomatoes, of all sizes and shapes, up to those called "lemon tomato" or "pepper tomato" due to the similarity. You will also find oddly shaped tomatoes, such as bulb tomatoes, bag tomatoes, conspicuously flat or ribbed ones. Finally you will find tomatoes with the strangest colors, such as zebra, spotted, etc.

If you want to browse some online catalog, here are some addresses. Many of these houses sell directly by mail order, some even send the paper catalog free of charge. Those who do not sell by mail order will be able to indicate the list of the closest retailers


Tomato cultivation and pruning

When the tomato plant is adult and productive, it produces the so-called "sissies", ie small growths under the leaf, at the junction of the petiole which, if not promptly cut, steal nourishment from the plant to the point of weakening and killing it.

When these shoots are noticed it is therefore necessary cut them neatly, using a pair of scissors or a fingernail. These same sprouts can be mixed with the soil in which the tomatoes grow and used as natural fertilizer , because they contain a lot of nutrients.


Ground

Planting strawberries in a tube is to use ready-made or independent universal soil store of the piece. To do this, mix in equal parts of the ordinary garden soil, turf, turf. Air permeability soil insert sand and sawdust. Also in the mixture prepared for the cultivation of strawberries necessarily add ash, preventing decay, as strawberry has a surface, rather delicate root system.

For planting strawberries do not work the land where the previous 2-3 years have grown crops such as strawberries, raspberries, tomatoes or potatoes. This facilitates the transfer of diseases, which are peculiar to these plants. Humus or manure can also be added to the soil mix in small proportions. 10cm bottom fill pipes of the coarse gravel, or any other suitable material to provide good drainage. Above is full and slightly compacted soil mixture to the top.


From tomato treatment the tomatoes in the greenhouse (video)

growing in a greenhouse - not as simple an exercise as it may seem. Tomatoes are very imaginative plants that need constant care. They need to create the ideal conditions that would normally grow and bear fruit. They love the heat, they don't like too wet air. In addition, tomatoes must be given adequate nutrition. Before planting, the soil must be treated to protect the plants from fungal infection or pest attack.


Video: Grafting for Disease Management in Organic Tomato Production


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