Do-it-yourself mansard roof construction

The mansard roof allows the habitable space to be located directly under the roof of the house. In this way, significant savings in building materials are achieved. To equip the attic requires a careful calculation, a detailed diagram and strict implementation of step-by-step construction technology. Protection against temperature extremes requires a careful approach to the thermal insulation of the attic. Ventilation of the roof and under-roof space will protect the rafter structures from the effects of condensation and icing of the roof. An analysis of typical mistakes during construction will allow you to avoid gross miscalculations during installation and to do the work with your own hands in a quality manner.

Features of the construction of mansard roofs

The construction of attic roofs, regardless of type, is subject to the requirement to maintain a balance between strength and the maximum volume of living space under the roof. The roof and walls of the building experience constant loads in the form of the total weight of the roof structure and roof covering and variable loads due to wind action and the weight of the snow cover. The maximum volume of living space is achieved by increasing the angle of inclination of the slopes, as well as by changing the structure of the attic roof. For example, a change in the angle of inclination of a gable roof leads to an increase in the under-roof space, and as a result we get a gable broken rafter structure. In order to create your own attic project that will meet your requirements, you need to know the types of attic roofs, namely:

  1. The hipped roof type has a high resistance to external loads, but has a small usable area, which can be slightly increased due to tongs cut at right angles to the slope.

    A small volume of the roof space is increased by increasing the angle of inclination of the slopes and inserting tongs

  2. The gable roof allows you to increase the volume of the attic by increasing the angle of inclination of the slopes and is the most economical, durable and easy-to-manufacture structure.

    The large angle of inclination of the slopes allows you to get rid of the accumulation of snow due to its slipping, and the rigid structure resists wind loads

  3. Hip or semi-hip roofs have a European look and ample living space.

    Half-hip design allows for spacious living space and beautiful appearance

  4. The multi-gable type mansard roof gives a significant gain in useful space, but is distinguished by a complex structure of the rafter system.

    The multi-pliers option allows you to build a large attic using pliers cut perpendicular to each other

  5. The sloping gable roof attic is very popular in suburban construction, because at a relatively low cost it has the maximum living volume. In addition, the slope angles of the slopes provide a minimum snow load on the rafter system.

    The broken rafter structure makes it possible to get a full-fledged second floor

  6. Mixing types of attic roofs gives the effect of increasing living space, but differs in the complexity and high cost of the rafter system and poor resistance to wind loads.

    Increasing the volume of the attic through the use of different styles is an interesting but expensive architectural solution.

Each type of attic rafter structure has its own characteristics, which are determined by the location, shape and angle of inclination of the slopes, as well as the method of connecting the rafter legs at the attachment points. One of the features of attic roofs is the joint at the top of several rafters, converging at different angles and mounted together through a purlin or with each other. For their docking, a temporary support is used in the form of a vertical rack, which is removed after the end of the assembly. This connection is typical for hip, gable, hip and semi-hip roofs.

In the case of connecting several rafters into one unit, side struts or vertical struts are used

A feature of the assembly of a sloping attic roof is the connection within one truss of five components of the rafter system. These are two joints of the layered and hanging rafters, longitudinal girder, tightening and rack.

The articulation of multidirectional rafter elements sets the angle of inclination of the slopes, as well as the dimensions of the attic room

For a strong connection of several rafter elements, it is necessary to use cuts, bolts, metal plates and corners.

Another feature of attic roofs is that the inner border of the attic runs along vertical posts, which are the basis for laying insulation and installing interior trim, and also create an additional strength knot for the rafter system along with struts and fights.

It is very important to choose the structure of the truss system that is most suitable for specific conditions, which will provide a large volume of the attic room, ease of construction and acceptable costs for building materials.

Project preparation

The preparation of the project begins with the choice of the type of attic roof, the selection of the angle of inclination of the slopes and the calculation of the parameters of the attic roof. All of these calculations are based on the dimensions of the building, and the choice of the cross-section of the load-bearing elements depends on the variable and climatic loads in your area. A professionally designed project includes all these parameters, but it is very expensive, and it takes a lot of time to work on it, so it will be much easier to make drawings yourself.

The choice of the construction of the attic roof is made according to the criterion of the maximum living space and is consistent with the climatic conditions of the area

When choosing a roof type, it is important to take into account snow and wind loads, the complexity of the rafter system and the maximum possible attic volume that a particular structure provides. The illustration shows that the most preferable is the version with a sloping roof (3) or a gable roof with raised walls (2).

The rafter structure scheme includes the selected type of roof, where the length of the rafter legs is calculated taking into account the angle of inclination of the slopes, which is selected experimentally using a measuring cord and a construction goniometric tool. Next, we enter into the resulting drawing an attic room with a height of at least 220 cm according to SNiP. We correct the length of the rafters and the angle of inclination of the slopes, taking into account the length of the eaves overhang. Suppose that our house is 6x6 m, the eaves overhang is 0.5 m, and the type of mansard roof is a gable broken line. We get a diagram of a farm in the form of a drawing, which reflects the total width of the roof equal to 6 m + 0.5 m + 0.5 m = 7 m.

The preparation of the project begins with the calculation of the main parameters of the attic roof

According to the obtained scheme, it is possible to calculate all the necessary data to calculate the parameters of the attic roof, for example, to calculate the volume of the residential under-roof space, it is enough to multiply the height of the attic by the useful width and by the length of the building: 2.3 mx 4.5 mx 6 m = 62.1 m3... With a building length of 6 m, seven trusses will be needed to mount the roof, since the permissible distance between the rafter legs is from 80 to 120 cm.

Calculation of the attic roof

Calculation of the dimensions of the roof to create a full-fledged project makes it possible to determine the area of ​​the slopes, gables, lumber consumption, the angle of inclination of the rafter legs and auxiliary elements. The availability of design data allows you to make design drawings, which are the basis for determining the cost of building materials, their weight and the method of optimal cutting.

Slope calculation

The slope of the slope is determined using construction tools with a scale graduated in degrees, or calculated from the known dimensions of the rafters. The use of optimal angles of inclination for various roofing materials is regulated by SNiP II-26-76 "Roofs" and SO-002-02495342-2005, and these documents use values ​​both in degrees and in percentages.

You can calculate the slope by calculating, both in degrees and in percent.

Therefore, we calculate the slope using the following formula: i = a: b x 100, where i is the slope in percent, a is the height of the ridge, b is half the width of the building. We get 2: 3 x 100 = 67%, for conversion to degrees we use the following table.

Table: roof slope in percent and degrees


From the table we see that 67% is 34 °. In the same way, you can calculate the angle of inclination of other roof elements in percentages and degrees.

Calculation of the area of ​​the roof and gable

To calculate the required amount of roofing material or finishing elements, you need to determine the area of ​​the slopes and gables of the attic roof. These pieces are simple geometric shapes. In the case of a gable or sloped mansard roof, the slopes are rectangles, the area of ​​which is calculated by the formula S = A x B, where A is the length of the slope, B is the width of the slope. The area of ​​hip slopes and hips is calculated as the area of ​​triangles using the formula S = A x H: 2, where A is the base of the slope, H is the height of the slope.

The area of ​​the hip roof is calculated as the sum of the areas of two triangles and two trapezoids

The area of ​​multi-gable and hip roofs is calculated using the formula for the area of ​​the trapezoid S = (A + B) x H: 2, where S is the area of ​​the trapezoidal slope, A and B are the length of the upper and lower base of the trapezoid, H is the height of the trapezoid. To obtain the total roof area, it is necessary to add the area of ​​all slopes.

The gables can be triangular, trapezoidal or, in the case of a sloping roof, contain both geometric shapes. For example, let's calculate the area of ​​the gable of a sloping attic roof. You can make a calculation by summing the areas of a trapezoid and a triangle, according to the above formulas, or you can calculate it as the sum of the areas of three triangles and two quadrangles. For example, S1 = (B - C) x H, where S1 Is the area of ​​the lateral triangles, B is the width of the pediment, C is the width of the attic, H is the height of the attic. S2 = C x D: 2, where S2 Is the area of ​​the upper triangle, D is the height of the upper triangle, C is the base of the upper triangle. S3 = C x H, where S3 Is the area of ​​the attic part of the pediment, C is the width of the attic, H is the height of the attic. S4 - window area.

The area of ​​the gable of a sloping roof is calculated as the sum of the areas of geometric shapes

The total area of ​​the pediment is: S = S1 + S2 + S3 - S4, to calculate the area of ​​two gables, the calculated value is multiplied by two.

Timber calculation

The amount of lumber is calculated according to the design diagram, which shows the dimensions of the rafter legs and auxiliary fasteners. The calculation is made starting with the Mauerlats, and with a building size of 6x6 m, you will need four beams 150x150 mm, 6 m long, fixed along the perimeter of the building. In addition, it is necessary to prepare two six-meter runs from a 100x150 mm bar and two six-meter legs from a 50x100 mm bar.

Lumber is calculated according to the scheme, which indicates the dimensions of the rafter group

After that, we calculate the truss starting with the tightening, which rests on the Mauerlat, in our case we need one beam of 50x150 mm, 6 m long. Next, we need two rafter legs 50x150 mm with a joining allowance of 245 mm, 4940 mm long. The auxiliary racks and the upper tightening are made of 50x100 mm timber, their total length is 4 m. This amount of material is spent on the manufacture of one truss, and with a building length of 6 m, seven such trusses are needed. Each project has its own personality, therefore it is necessary to adjust the calculation of materials depending on the attic structure.

Temperature and humidity calculation of the attic roof

Temperature and humidity analysis is carried out in order to competently organize the insulation, ventilation of the under-roof space, waterproofing and vapor protection of the attic roof. The temperature difference between the outside and the inside in the middle lane can reach 50 °, so it is so important to determine the required thickness of the insulation and remove excess moisture from the roofing cake. Protection of insulation and wooden structures from moisture from the side of the interior is carried out with the help of a vapor barrier film and is removed due to natural ventilation of the living space.

The mansard roof is affected by atmospheric factors that must be neutralized

Exposure to precipitation and temperature changes leads to the formation of condensation on the inner surface of the roof covering. Moisture is removed from this space by draining it into the drainage system through a waterproof film and drips, as well as by organizing ventilated gaps using a counter-lattice and lathing.

Excess moisture is removed using ventilation gaps

Air inflow occurs through the perforation of the eaves, as well as through the gap between the roofing and the battens. Moisture is removed through ridge elements or special ventilation aerators.

The thickness of the insulation depends on the thermal insulation properties and is selected by calculating the temperature difference between the living space and the external environment. In the illustration, the difference between outdoor and indoor temperatures reaches 28 ° (from -9 to + 19 °), and in the middle lane the differences can reach large values. According to SNiP 23-02-2003 "Thermal protection of buildings" and SP 23-101-2004 "Design of thermal protection of buildings" calculations are made for mansard roofs and on their basis it can be argued that it is economically feasible to use mineral wool slabs for the roofing cake.

The difference between the external and internal temperature of the attic determines the thickness of the insulation

Using the example of the heat engineering calculation of the enclosing structures, it is shown that it is possible to use insulation with a density of 145 kg / m3 150 mm thick. After insulation, the wall has a thermal resistance of 3.32 W / (m2° С), which meets the requirements. The insulated wall also meets the requirements for heat resistance, air and vapor permeability. Conditions for moisture condensation in this design are excluded both in its thickness and on the inner surface.

Under the condition of low temperatures from -25 ° and below, as well as with a low density of mineral wool, it is possible to use insulation with a thickness of up to 240 mm.

It is important to keep in mind that the waterproofing membrane and vapor barrier film during the installation of the segments must be firmly fastened between the pieces with an overlap in order to prevent the insulation from getting wet, since excessive moisture leads to a loss of the heat-insulating properties of the material.

Rafter system

The rafter system defines the shape of the mansard roof and distributes constant and variable loads evenly to the walls of the building. To eliminate the bursting effect, auxiliary elements are used that create stiffening nodes within the truss. But this is not enough for a strong connection between the walls and the roof, therefore, an intermediate bar of a large section is used, which is called a mauerlat. The bars of the puffs and the lower ends of the rafter legs are attached to this element, so the Mauerlat must have a strong connection with the building wall and is fixed to them using threaded rods walled into the walls.

The rafter system is the roof frame and evenly distributes the load on the walls of the house

The rafter system is a support for the lathing, on which the roofing and additional elements are attached, so the rafter legs are set along the guide girders without displacement and distortions and are securely fixed in the connecting nodes.

Armopoyas under the attic roof

Armopoyas performs the function of strengthening the walls and preventing destruction as a result of multidirectional loads. Along with the foundation, this structure is a one-piece reinforced concrete belt, into which vertical threaded rods are concreted for fastening the Mauerlat. Armopoyas is also designed to level the upper part of the walls of the building, therefore, the formwork must be set strictly in level and have the same height on all walls.

The reinforced belt runs along the perimeter of the building and threaded rods are walled into it for fastening the Mauerlat

The reinforcing frame is made continuous along the entire perimeter and consists of four reinforcing rods with a diameter of 12 mm, tied together with a wire every 500 mm. Along the central axis of the armored belt, vertical studs with a diameter of 14 mm should be fixed at an equal distance from each other and with an indent from the edges of the future Mauerlat by 400 mm. The marking of the location of the threaded rods should be made taking into account the position of the puffs and rafter legs so that they do not coincide with each other.

Installation of lathing

The lathing of mansard roofs is made continuous under soft roofing materials and it is mounted from processed particle boards or plywood with a thickness of at least 12 mm. For lathing from boards with a certain pitch, a board of 25x100 mm is used, and for a counter lattice, a bar of 40x60 mm. It is necessary to pay attention to the thickness of the board and the timber so that it is the same for the entire roof, otherwise irregularities and distortions may occur during the installation of the roof covering. In addition, in the presence of gable overhangs, the crate should protrude 40-60 cm beyond the extreme rafters.

Before installing the crate, a waterproof film is laid on the rafters

The installation of the crate is carried out in the following sequence:

  1. A hydrophobic membrane is laid on the rafters with a sag of about 15 mm between the rafters, the horizontal overlap between the pieces of film should be at least 10 mm, and the vertical overlap is 15 mm.
  2. A frontal board is mounted on the vertically cut rafters, a drip is attached to it, and the lower part of the membrane is fixed on the drip to drain the condensate.
  3. Then counter-lattice bars are attached to the rafters, which create a ventilation gap between the film and the roofing to evaporate moisture.
  4. After that, the lathing is mounted with a step that depends on the selected roofing. In the case of metal tiles, the pitch depends on the wavelength, the typical sizes of which are 300, 350 and 400 mm. This spacing is equal to the pitch of the sheathing, which is measured from the center of the boards.

    On the cornice, the crate is placed more often to ensure reliable fastening of the lower part of the sheets

  5. The first board is attached from the bottom under the edge of the rafters, the second is end-to-end without a gap, and the third is laid so that the overhang of the roofing material outside the rafters is 5-7 cm.
  6. The top board of the sheathing must ensure a strong fastening of the ridge roofing element and its position is calculated locally.

It should be noted that the rafters and crate elements must be treated with antiseptic and fire-fighting compounds and dried before installation.

Mansard Roof Roofing Pie

On the mansard roof, the roofing cake is of a heterogeneous nature, since insulation and vapor protection are not used in non-residential areas. The cold part includes roofing, battens, counter battens and a waterproof membrane. The roofing pie of the residential part of the premises consists of:

  1. Weatherproof outer coating.
  2. Lathing made of boards or beams, on which the roofing material is mounted.
  3. Counter-lattice made of beams, on which the main lathing is laid.
  4. A waterproofing membrane that protects the insulation from moisture and condensation.
  5. Ventilation gap.
  6. Thermal insulating material, such as mineral wool, 150-200 mm thick, placed between the rafters.
  7. A vapor barrier film that protects the insulation from the penetration of warm air from the room and the formation of condensation.
  8. Internal cladding material: plasterboard, lining, plastic panels.

The roofing cake of the residential part of the attic is supplemented with insulation and a vapor barrier

Such a structure of the roofing cake ensures the safety of the roofing, the rafter system and reliable insulation for year-round living in the attic of a country house.

Ventilation, including through hatches and gables

Changes in weather conditions and even minimal cold bridges lead to the formation of condensation in the thickness of the roofing cake, therefore it is extremely important to ensure effective ventilation of the under-roof space and the living part of the attic. To remove condensation between the roofing sheets and the waterproofing film, a channel is used through which the outside air is taken in through the vents of the cornice. The flow passes under the roofing sheets, thanks to the counter-grill, and is led out through the hatches of the aerators and the ridge strip. For this purpose, holes or windows in the gables are also used, which increase the speed of passage of air masses and are located in the zone of the cold triangle.

The mansard roof ventilation system must ensure efficient air circulation in the roofing cake

The efficiency of ventilated ridge slats is reduced in winter due to snow accumulation, therefore it is better to use tubular ridge and roof aerators with a height of 360 to 470 mm. They are made of polypropylene, operate in the temperature range from -50 to + 130 ° and are easily mounted on a slope or ridge.

The roof or ridge aerator is easy to install and provides effective ventilation of the roof space

One aerator provides ventilation up to 80 m2 roofs, but each slope needs a separate outlet, so it is more advantageous to use ridge aerators with a height of 360 mm.

It is very important to ensure good ventilation in the living area of ​​the attic because this helps to remove excess moisture from the air, accelerates evaporation from the surface of the vapor barrier, and therefore reduces the risk of moisture in the insulation.

Manufacturing steps with step by step instructions

To build a mansard roof with your own hands, you need to go through a number of stages with the performance of technological operations and first you need to prepare a workplace. For this purpose, scaffolding is mounted and ladders are attached, as well as safety ropes and belts are prepared. After that, a place is set up on the ground for cutting the material and making templates. Then the installation work begins, which are carried out in the following sequence:

  1. A waterproofing material is rolled onto the armopoyas, on which a Mauerlat with drilled holes is laid and fixed through washers with nuts on studs. If the last crown of a wooden wall serves as a mauerlat, then it should be well fastened to the previous crowns, and the corners should be tied with steel staples.
  2. Puffs (7) are attached to the Mauerlat in increments of 60 to 120 cm and with a distance of the eaves overhang.

    The manufacture of a mansard roof consists in the sequential performance of assembly operations

  3. Further, the contours of the attic room are formed and for this, racks (6) are installed on the puffs, which are connected to the lower (node ​​B) and upper (node ​​D) girders. The upper part of the struts is connected by an upper tie (4), which is the attic ceiling.
  4. The side rafters (5) are harvested according to the template and connected with a tightening (node ​​A) and with a rack (node ​​D). Then the upper rafters (1) are connected to each other (node ​​B), fastened with a metal strip (2) and a crossbar (3), and then with a tightening (4), node D.
  5. Similarly, the following trusses are assembled, which are fastened together with a permanent ridge run and temporary ligaments for stability.

    The lathing is mounted taking into account the gable overhangs and using templates

  6. A cornice section is formed when a vertical frontal board is attached to the cut rafters, and a drip bar is mounted on it to drain condensate from the waterproofing membrane.
  7. At the next stage, a waterproofing film is laid on the rafters with an overlap of 15 cm and a sag of 1.5 cm, then a counter-lattice is mounted on which the crate is attached using a template of equal pitch between the boards.
  8. Further, the roofing is installed from the bottom up and the bottom sheets are attached with an overhang of 70 mm so that water gets into the gutter.

If you have the correct calculations, drawings and wiring diagrams, you can make a mansard roof with your own hands, you need to have some qualifications and follow the technological chain. When installing identical trusses, it is advisable to install two extreme structures, fix them and pull the cord between them, along which the remaining rafters are installed. The fact is that lumber does not have ideal geometric dimensions and excessive haste can lead to marriage.

Video: installation of a mansard roof

Common mistakes in the construction of mansard roofs

Making a mansard roof with your own hands does not exclude mistakes, especially when the work is done for the first time. A common and most common mistake is the desire to save time and do without careful calculations, as a rule, this leads to material damage. The most common are the following miscalculations, namely:

  • selection of cheap and low-quality lumber with high humidity or knotty;
  • weak fastening of the Mauerlat to the walls and puffs to the Mauerlat, in this bundle maximum loads are applied to the walls and negligence is unacceptable;
  • the absence of struts, headstocks and other auxiliary fasteners, which provide additional rigidity of the rafters and puffs;
  • insufficiently strong fastening in critical nodes, such as ridge, cornice, valley and the place of fracture of broken roofs;
  • insufficient strength at the joints when lengthening puffs and rafters;
  • neglect of antiseptic processing of wood, which causes rotting of lumber, and saving on a waterproofing membrane or vapor barrier film leads to a loss of the heat-insulating properties of heaters;
  • inconsistency of the pitch of the lathing with the selected roofing material and the fragile fastening of the sheets to the lathing, which can lead to their separation, since in a gusty wind the load reaches 150 kg / m2.

It should be noted that any unreasonable desire to save time and money leads to even greater time and material costs, and violation of the technological sequence leads to serious mistakes.

Video: error in installing the rafters of the attic roof

When constructing an attic roof with your own hands, you need to choose the right type of it, calculate the basic parameters and rafter system, choose a roofing cake and organize ventilation. A description of the structure with step-by-step instructions at the installation stages will help to avoid typical mistakes associated with violation of construction technology.

The most convenient way to get an early harvest of vegetables is to grow them in a greenhouse. But not everyone has the opportunity to build or acquire it. Warm beds can be a good alternative. They allow you to accelerate the ripening of crops by two to three weeks, earlier than usual.

Do-it-yourself warm beds: step by step production

Growing plants in a warm bed, there is no need for frequent feeding them with mineral fertilizers, since the available organic matter is quite enough. On such structures, seedlings appear stronger, are less susceptible to various diseases and are less likely to be attacked by pests. Therefore, there is no need to treat the plantings with chemicals. How to make warm beds with your own hands? Step-by-step manufacturing will help you build such structures yourself.

Do-it-yourself bath - construction photos

1-2. The frame of the light bath had to be "anchored" - fixed on the foundation, so that in a strong wind the building would not collapse.

3. In the first construction season, the bath frame was assembled, and by autumn it was brought under the roof.

4. To form the overhangs according to the template, identical parts were made from a board of twenty and a bar of 50 × 50 mm, fastened at an angle. This is one of the few joints where the board is cut into the bar.

5. In the frame of the bath, all the details are overlaid, and there are almost no inserts, which saved time. Used materials of two or three standard sizes. The main blanks are a twenty board and a bar with a section of 50 × 50 mm.

6. The top of the heater is just above the floor of the steam room. The brick walls around the stove, when heated, provide ventilation of the cellar under the steam room, so that the floor in the steam room will be dry and warm.

7. The walls of the steam room are insulated with basalt wool, and the outside is covered with a windproof vapor-permeable film.

8. View of the attic frame from the inside. The design is simple and concise.

9. Vyacheslav Dmitrievich Voronin at work.

Author: V. Tikhomirov, Khimki, Moscow region. In preparing the article, materials from the magazine "Dom" were used. Photos and drawings by Vyacheslav Dmitrievich Voronin

DIY birdhouse: stages of work, video

The design of the house depends on where it will be hung. If to a post, balcony or under the roof of the house, then in order for feathered friends to have a place to walk, you should provide additional perches in the form of a triangular shelf or thin sticks.

For a birdhouse suspended from a tree, such perches can be omitted, so the birds will sit on the branches and delight their owners with chirping.

To build a comfortable and compact birdhouse with your own hands, the drawing of which must be prepared in advance, you will need the following materials and tools:

  • Boards.
  • Joiner's glue.
  • Nails or screws.
  • Two sticks and steel wire for hanging the house.
  • Chisel.
  • A hammer.
  • Drill for wood.
  • Drill.
  • hacksaw for wood.
  • Ruler.
  • A simple pencil.

To carry out work on the manufacture of a terem house for starlings should be carried out in several stages.

Stage number 1 - do-it-yourself harvesting of wooden elements

On the prepared boards, according to the drawing, using a simple pencil and a ruler, the dimensions of the walls, bottom, roof and holes are marked. In this case, it is necessary to follow some recommendations:

  1. The roof should be made with a slope, so the front wall should be made four cm longer than the back one, and the side walls should be cut off from above to slope.
  2. The bottom should be made in the form of a square with a side of 13 cm.
  3. The roof is made from two different elements. One of them should look like the bottom of a birdhouse, and the other is made in the form of a large rectangle with which a canopy will be created.

Having drawn and compared with the drawing all the details of the structure, you can start cutting them out. In order for paired elements to have the same dimensions, they are recommended procure sequentially.

To make the starling house look beautiful from the outside, the boards can be additionally trimmed on one side.

Tray preferred round, since then it will look like a hollow, birds live in natural conditions. To protect chicks from the encroachment of cats, the entrance to the birdhouse must be located five cm from the top edge.

Stage number 2 - assembling a house for starlings with your own hands

First of all, it is necessary fasten the front facade and side walls constructions.This is done with the help of wood glue, as the glue dries, the elements are additionally fixed with self-tapping screws or nails.

Further, according to the same principle, the side ends of the bottom of the birdhouse are attached to the side and front walls. Last of all, it is glued to the structure and the back wall is nailed... During work, it is necessary to ensure that there are no gaps between the elements.

If the roof is removable, then its parts are attached only to each other. You do not need to glue or nail it to the birdhouse. It is installed on the structure using rubber or door hinges. In this case, the birds will protected from visiting cats.

Stage number 3 - installation of a birdhouse

The finished bird house can be tied with wire to the selected surface or nailed. For easier exit for chicks and additional protection, the design is recommended tilt slightly forward... If the birdhouse will be installed on a tree, then it is better to wrap it with wire.

Basic rules for placing a "apartment" for birds:

  • the optimal height is 3-5 meters in a summer cottage or in a village and from 8 to 10 meters in a city
  • the birdhouse should not be exposed to direct sunlight in the midday heat
  • the entrance to the house should be turned to the side with a minimum amount of winds
  • tilt of the structure backwards is not allowed
  • it is necessary to make sure that there are no branches near the birdhouse, along which a cat can get to the bird's dwelling
  • it is recommended to install houses for feathered friends in early April.

The birdhouse is made and installed with our own hands, it remains only to wait for the residents to settle in. But what if there are no boards, but you want to make a bird house? In this case, materials that are always at hand will come to the rescue.

Sloped mansard roof construction technology

  1. Install the Mauerlat around the perimeter of the house. In wooden buildings, the upper beam or log serves as a mauerlat. In stone - brick or block - buildings, the Mauerlat timber is attached to studs or anchors, fixed in the walls during masonry at a distance of no more than 2 meters. The Mauerlat is leveled along the inner plane of the wall, the wall remaining outside is later laid with decorative masonry. Mauerlat beams made of dry coniferous wood usually have a cross section of 100 or 150 mm. Saw off the bar of the required length, straighten the anchor pins if necessary and put the bar on top of them. Lightly tapping with a hammer. Dents from the studs remain on the bar, a hole of the required diameter is drilled through them. You can also mark the timber with a tape measure, but the probability of an error in this case is higher. Roll waterproofing is laid on the wall, you can use ordinary roofing material in two layers. Mauerlat is put on studs and nuts are tightened.

A broken mansard roof usually does not need insulation - only the walls and ceiling of the attic are insulated. The air space formed under the rafters ensures good ventilation of the attic, reduces heating of the attic rooms in summer and provides additional thermal insulation in winter. Therefore, when sewing the gables, it is important to leave ventilation windows in the upper part of the roof, above the attic floor ceilings.

Option # 1: manual tornado - death to the weeds

Tornado - this is the name of a hand cultivator, which can and should be done by hand. Having such a device resembling a twisted pitchfork, you can forget about endless battles with weeds. The teeth of the tool pierce the ground at an angle, after which the Tornado must be turned and raised. To do this, you do not have to exert excessive efforts, because instead of the usual handle, the Tornado has a lever.

The Tornado cultivator attracts with the fact that it is quite easy to use and working with it does not require any significant effort.

This wonderful root remover is good for everyone, but acquaintance with its store price can completely discourage the desire to become its owner. However, there is nothing complicated in this device. The Tornado cultivator can be made independently and even in several different ways.

Spring Steel Tornado

We need a steel tape 50 cm long, 1-1.5 mm thick and 2 cm wide. Spring steel is best used for our purpose. We bend the tape in the form of a loop and attach it to the wooden handle of the tool. The length of the handle is determined depending on the height of the owner: it should be comfortable to work with the tool. You can also make a lever, the same as that of a store root remover. The working steel loop should be 20 cm in diameter, which is slightly less than the row spacing. The edges of the hinge are filed on both sides.

Weeds - pitchfork to the side

If a Tornado looks like a pitchfork, then why not make a hand cultivator out of this familiar tool for all gardeners with your own hands? We'll buy a regular pitchfork from a hardware store and use a hammer to bend the teeth of this tool to the desired bend. In general, the tool should resemble a kind of corkscrew. It is important to take your time and proceed with caution.

For the lever, you need a half-meter piece of plastic pipe. We also buy in the store a plastic handle-attachment for the handle, which is used for pitchforks or shovels. We cut the tube lengthwise, put it on the handle and fix it with electrical tape so that it does not slip. The resulting lever now protrudes about 25 cm from the handle on both sides.

It is logical to make the fork-shaped part of the Tornado precisely from the pitchfork - a tool well known to all gardeners that everyone has

An important part for the Tornado cultivator is its upper lever part: thanks to the lever, you can do hard work with minimal effort

Manufacturing steps

Now let's get down to step-by-step instructions.

  • The plastic container is the torso. We will attach the rest of the parts to it. The neck is a wire, which is lined with pieces of polystyrene, fixed with tape. With tape, we attach the neck to the body, that is, to the bottom of the plastic bottle.
  • We put a piece of polystyrene on the neck - this is the head. We try to round it off.
  • The thighs are also made of foam, inserting equal pieces on both sides of the bottle neck. We fix everything with tape.
  • The legs will be made of already used electrodes. But metal rods of equal length are also suitable, and just a neatly folded wire several times.

  • A long nail will be used as a beak. You can plant a piece of wood on it.
  • Before applying the polyurethane foam, we check the reliability of the support.
  • On top of the resulting layout, we apply polyurethane foam with our own hands.
  • We grind. All excess must be carefully trimmed.

  • Acrylic paints need to be painted on the sculpture.
  • Real feathers can be inserted into the tail and wings.

Peacock making workshop

To make it easier to craft a bird figure, you can use the video material, which outlines the workflow in detail.

Video: we make a peacock from plastic bottles

Guided by the instructions, everyone can create a peacock from plastic bottles. Plastic is a durable material that does not lose its shape and can be easily painted. The bright figure of a bird with luxurious plumage will give any corner of the garden uniqueness and will delight you with its magical beauty for a long time.

Watch the video: Gambrel Trusses for Small Barns..NO PROBLEM with This STEP BY STEP How TO

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