How to prune currants in the spring: recommendations for beginner gardeners

Currant is very often found in gardens and in personal plots, since its fruits have a lot of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. With proper care, this shrub is able to delight with a bountiful harvest for at least 20-25 years. But in order to achieve a good result and extend the life of the plant, you need to know some of the intricacies of caring for this berry crop. Correct crown formation of perennial fruit shrubs is an important and crucial part of the growing process.

Purpose of spring currant pruning

Spring pruning of currant bushes is a must. This procedure is performed to achieve the following goals:

  1. All branches broken by mechanical means (wind, snow), dried out or damaged by pests are removed. The plant will not waste energy on healing diseased shoots.
  2. The bush is freed from completely frozen or frozen branches, which will unnecessarily take away nutrients from the plant. Since flower buds form on the top of the shoot, no fruit is formed on them anyway.
  3. Old, poorly fruiting branches are cut out last year. It is believed that each shoot bears fruit for about five years on average. At the same time, the maximum yield will be observed in the third year of life, and then it gradually decreases. Therefore, periodically old shoots need to be replaced with new ones. Pruning stimulates the formation of young fresh twigs, which in the future will give a good harvest of berries.
  4. Thinning of the shrub is carried out in order to ensure good ventilation and sunlight. If this is not done, then the risk of being affected by various diseases and pests increases significantly. In addition, on thickened bushes, the berry will be smaller, and due to poor lighting it usually has the worst taste.

Spring currant pruning is carried out as soon as the snow melts

Pruning carried out in the spring is considered sanitary, it is extremely important for the normal development of currant plantings and obtaining a bountiful harvest.

The main formative pruning is most often carried out in the fall, when the plant goes into a dormant period. In the spring, poorly overwintered and spare shoots left in the fall are cut out, because not all branches survive the winter equally well.

If the buds have already begun to open on the currants, then it is better to postpone pruning until autumn or until next spring

Together with the purchase of the house, we inherited several currant bushes that grew along the fence. They were very large, old and sprawling. It was immediately noticeable that they were never cut off. In the very middle it was full of dry, dead and old, twisted shoots with cracked bark. The plants bloomed little, were sick and looked frankly bad. There were literally a few berries and their taste left much to be desired. Therefore, I had to part with the bushes. We did not try to bring them into a divine form, they looked too ancient. In the fall, they were uprooted and burned.

Video: blackcurrant pruning basics

Basic rules for cutting currants

It is extremely important to do the spring pruning of currants correctly, otherwise there will be no benefit from this procedure. It is sometimes difficult for inexperienced gardeners to understand which branch should be removed and which should be left. Illiterate manipulations can bring great harm to the plant and significantly reduce the yield. In order to avoid negative consequences, novice gardeners need to adhere to the following recommendations:

  1. Pruning of bushes should be carried out in early spring, before the start of active sap flow and foliage blooming. Usually this time falls on the last decade of March, when almost all the snow cover has melted, a stable positive temperature of about +5 C ° will be established and the threat of return frosts will blow. This is a very short period, the buds quickly swell in currants and leaves appear. If for some reason the pruning did not work out on time, then it is better to postpone this procedure until autumn or next year.
  2. For work, use a sharpened tool (pruner, brush cutter, knife, etc.), which must first be disinfected with alcohol or a solution of potassium permanganate. So the wood will be believed minimally.
  3. Five-year old branches are mercilessly cut under the root. Their bark is dark brown and cracks in places. There are areas affected by lichens.
  4. All shoots that are directed inside the bush are removed. They only thicken the inner part, as a result of which the berries on them ripen badly and for a long time. The bush is little ventilated, the likelihood of various pathogenic processes and pest damage increases.
  5. All dry, weak, broken, thin zero (coming from the ground) and all damaged shoots are cut off. All tops are removed - shoots that grow vertically upward.
  6. The bush is carefully examined. It is necessary to leave an approximately equal number of branches of different ages. This will ensure a stable harvest. Experienced gardeners leave 4-5 branches of different ages. They differ in the following ways:
    • annuals - smooth, thin and light, without lateral processes;
    • biennial - thicker in diameter, with brownish bark;
    • three years old and older - of a darker brown shade and with lateral processes.
  7. On each of the shoots, it is advised to cut 2-3 uppermost buds to stimulate the growth of dormant lateral eyes. In this case, the bush will grow in breadth.
  8. The cut should be made 5–6 mm above the last intended bud and at an angle of 45–50 ° with an inclination towards the center of the bush. The cutting line should be parallel to the kidney itself. If you leave a piece of the stem shorter, then the green bud will not have enough nutrition for development and it will dry out. The larger size of the remaining area will lead to its drying out, which is fraught with the death of the entire shoot in the future.

It is imperative to cut the branch correctly

The bulk of the harvest will be on three-year-old branches. They try to keep them in as large a quantity as possible. At the same time, do not forget to leave enough young animals to replace them.

During spring pruning, you can bend several branches to the ground at the age of 2-3 years, in this position, fix and sprinkle with earth. Roots will appear in the place of contact with the soil, the next year the seedlings can be separated from the mother bush and planted separately.

Remove all damaged, old and strongly inclined to the ground shoots

Last fall, we did not cut the currant bushes, we had to deal with the formation of their crown in the spring. Upon examination, it was found that several branches bent to the ground and took root. First, young plants with roots were separated and planted separately, and then the remaining branches were cut off at the very base. To prevent this from happening in the future, 4 metal rods with bent ends in the shape of a hook were driven into the ground. Then the thick wire was bent along the radius and passed into these rings, a round support for the branches was formed. In the future, when the shoots become longer, the rods from the ground can be pulled out a little and the support ring will become higher.

Video: spring currant pruning

How to prune a running bush

If you have to deal with a neglected shrub that has not been cut for a long time, then you can put it in order as follows:

  1. First, remove all dried, damaged, broken and weak thin shoots.
  2. Then they cut off the branches directed inside the bush, as well as those that spread along the ground.
  3. Cut out all shoots that are more than two years old.
  4. In early summer, new shoots begin to grow. When they grow up to 13-15 cm, they are thinned out. Only 3-4 of the strongest are left, the rest are removed.
  5. If there is little fresh growth, then 2-3 old shoots are removed. The remaining branches are shortened and the lateral processes are completely cut off on them.
  6. The next spring, no more than three of the strongest and strongest three-year-old shoots are left, the same number of two-year-olds and no more than 4–5 annuals. Everything else is deleted.

Excess branches need to be cut at the root

Overgrown and neglected bushes should not be spared. It is better to cut more branches at once, then the young growth will be strong and strong.

Features of pruning different types of currants

Currants of other varieties (white, red and pink) develop and form the crown a little differently. Plants of these species more often release skeletal basal shoots and produce significantly fewer lateral shoots. For this reason, the trimming technique will be different. The maximum number of berries is formed on five-year-old branches, so only shoots over 7-8 years old are considered old. Fruit buds are formed in the upper and middle parts of the branch, and at the very ends they are located in dense groups. Trimming the tops of red and white currants is never done, otherwise the harvest will be very poor.

The structure of the black and red currant bush is different

The basic rules for pruning white and red currants are as follows:

  1. The shrub is cut only in early spring.
  2. All damaged (frozen, broken, etc.) branches are removed.
  3. All weak last year's gain is removed. It is necessary to leave only 3-4 of the healthiest and strongest shoots.
  4. Very old and mature branches are cut, which have already reached eight years. Some sturdy shoots can be shortened to the first branch, this stimulates the formation of new lateral shoots.
  5. Each bush should consist of about 20-25 branches of different ages (from 1 to 8 years).
  6. It is not necessary to shorten and pinch the tops of the shoots.

When pruning red and white currant bushes, remove excess and damaged branches, but do not shorten the shoots

The main principle of pruning a currant bush is that a fresh replacement shoot should be provided for each removed old fruit-bearing branch.

Video: pruning red currants

How to rejuvenate a bush by pruning

Shrubs over 10 years old need to be rejuvenated. The technology is as follows:

  1. In the spring, before the buds swell, you need to cut out all the branches from 1/3 of the bush. Stumps are not left, they are cut to the ground.
  2. Of the new shoots that have appeared this season, no more than 3-4 of the strongest and strongest are chosen. Everyone else is taken away.
  3. The next spring, branches are cut from the other third of the bush. From the young growth, only a few pieces are also left.
  4. In the last pruning, it is necessary to remove all shoots from the remaining third and select 3 young growths in the same way.

Old currant bushes need to be periodically rejuvenated

Shrubs that have reached a venerable age (from 20 years), it makes no sense to rejuvenate, they are simply uprooted.

Some gardeners use another way to rejuvenate currants:

  1. From half of the bush, all branches that are older than one year are removed at the root. Only 3-4 young and strongest are left.
  2. On the other part of the bush, all shoots are cut out, except for a few that have reached 2-3 years. The strongest are chosen.
  3. The following spring, only sanitary pruning is carried out, removing diseased and dried branches.

About 4-5 years after the rejuvenation procedure, the shrub will bear fruit well.

Video: rejuvenating pruning of an old currant bush

How to process a slice

Even if the pruning of the shrub was carried out on time (before the start of sap flow), it is necessary to process the cut site with special compounds. The damaged part must be covered. This is done in order to minimize the loss of juice, as well as to prevent the penetration of various pathogenic bacteria and parasites into the shoot. A special garden variety is considered the most suitable; it can be purchased at any specialty store that sells goods for gardeners. If this is not possible, then the composition is easy to prepare yourself. There are several recipes for making a decoction for processing.

Places of cuts must be covered with garden var.

To make a garden varnish with your own hands, you will need the following components:

  • rendered pork fat (unsalted) - 125 g;
  • rosin - 200 g;
  • turpentine - 225 g;
  • wax - 200 g.

First, the wax is melted over low heat, then the remaining substances are added in turn. All this time, the mixture is constantly stirred so that it does not stick to the bottom of the vessel. When the composition becomes homogeneous, it is poured into a tin or glass jar and closed with a lid. Immediately before using the var, you need to warm it up and add a little pork fat to it.

Garden var can be prepared by hand

There is another recipe for fresh cut putty. To prepare it you will need:

  • rosin - 400-450 g;
  • linseed oil - 25 ml;
  • alcohol - 60 ml.

On very low heat, stirring constantly, melt the rosin. Remove from heat and allow to cool slightly. Then, while continuing to stir, pour in alcohol and oil. The finished composition is poured into a glass jar and tightly closed with an airtight lid. The container is opened only during work, because this mixture quickly hardens in contact with air.

On sale there are ready-made compositions for putty slices

According to the third recipe, to prepare the var, you need to take in equal parts: rosin, any vegetable oil (sunflower, linseed, etc.) and melted fat. All ingredients are simultaneously laid out in a metal bowl and melted over low heat with constant stirring. The homogeneous mixture is cooled, then poured into a jar and tightly closed with a lid.

It is more convenient to use a garden pitch from a tube

Purchased garden pitch can be left unheated before use. It becomes soft already from the warmth of the hands. But it is better not to take it with your bare hands, since then the mixture is very difficult to wipe off from your fingers. We applied the putty with a wooden ice cream stick. But in stores you can find garden compositions that are packaged in tubes. They need to be held in warm water for several minutes, and then squeezed directly onto the cut to be processed. To seal the wound tighter, it is best to spread the paste with your hands (with gloves) more thoroughly and gently.

Preventive spring pruning of currant bushes is an agrotechnical procedure that allows you to increase the yield of the crop, as well as protect the bushes from various infectious diseases and insect pests. To get a good result, you need to follow the rules and follow the recommendations of experienced gardeners.

Correct spring and autumn pruning of the black currant bush

Black currant pruning is an effective agricultural technique aimed at regulating the fruiting of a plant. Knowing the features of the structure and growth of the shrub, even novice gardeners can carry out the operation according to all the rules.

Features of the structure of the black currant bush

Why prune black currants?

General rules for pruning bushes

How to prune currants in spring

Scheme of pruning black currant in spring

Rejuvenating currant pruning

Unusual black currant pruning schemes

Simplest pruning for beginners

Michurinsk currant pruning

Bush care after pruning

If you do not start cutting currants in time, the bush will not give a good harvest, since the fruits are formed on the growth of branches of the previous period. Dried, damaged and old branches should be processed and pruned, which will interfere with the development of new shoots. If you constantly take care of the currants, it will bear worthy fruits in the future in the summer cottage.

In what period of time is it more correct to cut the bushes, and how best to shape them? What is the difference between pruning red currants and black currants?

Features of pruning black currant

The black currant bush grows sprawling and has a large number of branches. The goal of the gardener is the correct formation of each shrub, so that the bush has 15-20 branches of different ages (from initial germination to 6 years). 6-year-old branches will no longer bear fruit, so it is better to prune them. To form a bush start trimming in the first year of development of currants, in other words, immediately after planting.

Cutting seedlings during planting a bush

When planting currants, cut off the tops of the shoots. In this case, it is necessary to leave 2-3 buds on each branch. There is no need to worry - by the end of the one-year-old period, a young bush is able to give from 5 to 6 fresh shoots.

Currant pruning scheme

The second year of growth of the bush

After the first year of the life of the bush, zero (fresh) shoots should be cut off, leaving up to 5 strong and good branches. Such shoots are the initial branches of the currant. It is worth getting rid of brittle, shaded shoots that prevent others from growing. In addition, to obtain side shoots in the required quantity by July, it is required to shorten the young twigs by pinching their tops by 2 buds. This process will increase the small branches (fruit) on the old branches and will stimulate the development of fresh shoots from the buds below the ground. In this way, two needs are solved: the crop multiplies, and a shrub is formed.

Third, fourth year of shrub growth

We repeat the process again: from the fresh shoots we leave 3-6 of the most successfully formed ones, remove the rest. The main thing is to remove bad shoots and those that are underdeveloped in the center of the bush. They can shade the currants and slow down the emergence of new branches. The tops of the branches of the last year of development are removed. In second-year shoots and branches of the third year, 2-4 buds should be left on all branches. By this period, the currant bush will take shape and grow stronger.

pruning an old currant bush, photo

Fifth, sixth and next years of currant growth

At this time, old twigs are formed in the shrub, and the currant needs to be “rejuvenated”, that is, to renew the pruning. We remove branches 5-6 years old from the ground along with shoots that start from the bottom of the old branch (tops), cut off broken, frozen and overdried branches.

Then carry out pruning according to plan: shorten each branching at the branches of the second or fourth period of life, 2-4 buds are required to be left from last year's processes, remove the tops of the current processes, leave 3-5 of the best ones.

Detailed video of pruning currant bush

In what period is the currant bush cut?

We advise beginners to prune currants every year at the following times:

  • The optimal period is the end of autumn, after the foliage has fallen off.
  • In early spring, before the buds open, you can additionally prune, for example, remove all frozen tops and broken branches.
  • Branches that have dried up are pruned at any time.
  • By the middle of summer, they are busy with clothespin the tops of young shoots.

Recommendations for pruning white and red currants

Such types of currants, in comparison with black, are recommended to be formed in early spring or in summer after picking berries. You need to cut the bush in the same way as black currants, but do not pinch the tops of the growths of the last year or shorten the shoots of the second and three-year branches. From red currants, you just need to remove old branches of 7-8 years old, broken, frozen and diseased branches, excess fresh shoots.

Former branches, but which can still bear fruit, are shortened to the nearest obvious branching on the side. Stimulation of shoots occurs, and the vital activity of the currant bush increases, the fruits become larger.

Do I need to cut currants in the spring

Like any tree or shrub, currants have several periods of vegetative development. Accordingly, pruning should be carried out in such a way as to enhance growth, fruiting and reduce the risk of plant disease.

Garden, vegetable garden and flower garden tips

  • spring - sanitary, formative,
  • summer - for standardizing the formation of shoots and fruits,
  • autumn - formative, rejuvenating,
  • winter is carried out in continuation of the autumn, and only for thinning heavily thickened bushes.

Spring pruning, along with autumn pruning, is the main type of care for the formation of a bush and extending its life. During this period, sanitary cleaning of old plantings is carried out: frozen, dried and damaged branches are removed. In the spring, young bushes planted last year are formed.

Do not plan for a formative pruning of old bushes in the spring. After cutting out large branches, large wounds remain, and through them the plant will lose juices, the movement of which becomes especially active after awakening.

If you make the rejuvenation of the currants in the fall, and sanitary cleaning in the spring, you can extend the life of the bush to 15 years or more.

Techniques for competent pruning of red currants in the spring

Shaping is a necessary procedure, but the removal of live branches inflicts wounds on the bush that are a gateway to disease and pests. The plant itself is able to tighten the cut, but only if it is done correctly. Cut wounds heal quickly, and lacerated wounds can kill a branch.

The first rule of the gardener is to work with a sharp tool. This is important because a sharpened pruning shears will keep the cut straight and not crush the cambium, the cells that scar over the cut, tightening the wound.

The second rule of the gardener is to prune the branches without disturbing the natural movement of the juices.

There are four ways to spring pruning:

Removal of a branch to the level of the soil,

· Shortening of the shoot "to the kidney",

· Thinning of forks on a side branch.

Skill pruning techniques

Shaping is a necessary procedure, but the removal of live branches inflicts wounds on the bush that are a gateway to disease and pests. The plant itself is able to tighten the cut, but only if it is done correctly. Cut wounds heal quickly, and lacerated wounds can kill a branch.

The first rule of the gardener: work with a sharp tool... This is important because a sharpened pruning shears will keep the cut straight and not crush the cambium, the cells that scar over the cut, tightening the wound.

The second rule of the gardener is to prune the branches without disturbing the natural movement of the juices.

There are four ways to spring pruning:

  • removal of a branch to the level of the soil,
  • shortening the shoot "to the kidney",
  • a cut of a branch "for a ring",
  • thinning forks to a side branch.

Removing a branch to soil level

It is used to completely remove an old branch, which is cut in such a way that no stump remains above the soil. This is important because the remaining dead part will either start to rot or become a convenient entry point for pests. To make a correct cut, the ground is slightly shifted and the branch is removed with a pruner.

Shortening the shoot "to the kidney"

The main method of shortening shoots, which allows you to thin out the bush. All juices flowing along the branch will be directed to the top two or three nodes and their growth will increase. Therefore, you can cut a branch to the level of any bud, but the main thing is that it is directed from the bush. Shoots directed inward will only thicken the bush. But it is also important not to leave a stump when cutting, but also not to come close to the left kidney. The optimum distance is about 5 mm.

Kidney cut is used for shortening branches

Branch cut "on the ring"

It is mainly used to form black currants. With this type of pruning, the side shoots are cut completely, rejuvenating the skeletal branches. As a rule, this type of thinning is used in the fall, but it can also be carried out in the spring. The cut should be straight and perpendicular to the branch to be removed so that the wound area is as small as possible. Leaving the stumps is not allowed, but it is also impossible to capture part of the cambium of the main branch, as this will lead to its death.

Cut "for a ring" should not damage the main (skeletal) branch of the bush

Thinning forks to a side branch

On currants, as on other shrubs and trees, many forks are formed. They thicken the crown, preventing light from penetrating inside. Thinning branches solves this problem. In such cases, “for translation” trimming is used. This means that one of the two branches is left, which will take over the juices, thereby increasing the likelihood of fruiting. The main rule for choosing a branch for removal is the direction of growth: if the shoot grows vertically upwards, it cannot be left.

Incorrect pruning "with translation" will lead to the death of the remaining branch

Why prune?

Pruning is carried out to replace the old growth with new shoots. With such care for currants, the growth of root seedlings occurs, which are stronger and are able to give a full and high-quality harvest of berries. Lateral shoots also begin to grow actively, the plant becomes wider, the number of branches capable of producing a crop increases. Moreover, you need to strive to expand the area of ​​the plant, and not grow it up. A tall bush becomes unstable, branches may break.

It is also necessary to cut off annual seedlings, leaving 2-4 buds. The procedure is also carried out on young seedlings that have just begun to bear fruit. They remove the so-called annual branches that grow from its underground part.

Plum pruning scheme in spring

One-year-old seedlings are shortened with a sharp knife, leaving the trunk no higher than 60 cm, while monitoring the development of the tree during the summer. If part of the branches does not develop correctly, an autumn sanitary pruning is carried out with the removal of these branches.

In the second year of cultivation, the seedlings are cut 40 cm along the main trunk, while the upper bud under the cut must be removed. Lateral branches (except for the lower ones) are shortened by a third, while the lower shoots are cut off by more than half, leaving no more than 7 cm of their length.

The lower branches are subject to complete removal for 3 years of the tree's life. In the spring, 6 to 8 skeletal branches are left on a three-year-old tree, choosing the strongest, well-located shoots. The ideal distance between adjacent branches is 10-15 cm.

Advice! Skeletal branches located at an angle of 90 degrees to the trunk must be removed.

On the remaining shoots, it is supposed to leave up to 4 buds. The crown of the plum is formed in the form of tiers or bush. A properly pruned tree has a compact crown with 8-10 main branches that are evenly spaced around the main trunk.

Watch the video: How to Prune Currants in Early Spring - Gurneys Video

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